Technology In Ancient Egypt
Technology In Modern Egypt Books In Egypt
Science and Technology are, in today's world, the main factors of progress. What is new about technology is its name, the word Techno logia is a fixed pronunciation and a changeable one through out the evolution that civilization went through, regardless of the right definition of the word technology, no one disagrees about the big changes resulted from the last century's fast and continued technological developments.
The modern scientific and technological are revolution that tied science to technology presents a document. I might suggest to show in a geometrical shape the technological development in a geometrical shape called "Technological Angle" which represents the outcome of interaction between "science and technology". By analyzing, in a modern scientific outlook, the knowledge and techniques of what such related of which would open a new sphere of knowledge for understanding the development of human civilization.
In Ancient Egypt


In the course of a period that lasted for several millenniums, Egypt, an ‘island squeezed into the hollow of the Nile Valley, and bordered on the north by the Mediterranean Sea, by deserts on the east and west, and by the infinity of the black world on the south, created a civilization out of nothing. Behind her lay the immense empty stretch of prehistory, in which the slightest technological achievement had required hundreds and perhaps thousand of years of development. And then, relatively suddenly it seems, the invention of a new tool opened new possibilities. This tool was probably the hafted hammer or miner’s pick which, by acting as an extension of the power of the hand, undoubtedly inaugurated the era of the use of building stone and the working of quarries and mines. From then on, inventions followed in quick succession.

This period of gestation seems to have begun in the predynastic age (fifth millennium B.C.), and to have ended with the Thinite kings (toward 3,300 B.C.). By the time of the first Memphite dynasties (Old Kingdom, 2778 to 2420 B.C.), when the pyramids were built, Egyptian technology had reached complete development. Then, as if exhausted by this great effort, which had spanned three millenniums, it made little further progress. From then on, the same mallets, the same copper or bronze gravers, the same methods of stonecutting and woodcutting, continued to be used. This end of progress must undoubtedly be attributed to social life. Starting as a force of innovation by virtue of the needs it creates, society very often becomes a hindrance to progress through tradition, routine, and the development of misleading customs that lead to dead ends.

In contrast to the Greek and Roman civilizations, which were par excellence urban, Egypt possessed a purely rural civilization. Just as in modern times, moreover, her fate was in the hands of the Nile River. Egypt owes the elements of her comfort to the oily land of the Nile, with which the Egyptians molded bricks to be used in the construction of buildings. This type of construction could have continued indefinitely but for the chance discovery of a new need: the desire for eternal life. Then Egypt energetically set to work to create the components of eternity. The perishable architecture of mud, reeds, and wood was monumentalized by transposing the same elements into stone. Pharaonic Egypt remained faithful, however, to alluvium for her private dwellings and even for the palaces of her kings, which continued to be built of dried brick. But her gods and her houses of eternity had to be constructed of permanent materials. No material was sufficiently permanent neither sandstone nor the granite of Aswan nor the diorite from the desert. Egypt invented techniques that still amaze us: The people of the Old Kingdom succeeded in sculpturing with great suppleness of modeling the famous diorite statues of Chefren that are the pride of the Cairo Museum; they raised the stones of the Great Pyramids; they lighted the depths of the mines they exploited without being smothered by the fumes of combustion gas from the torches. With their scanty stone or copper tools, they succeeded in piercing cornelian beads, in carving statues of gigantic proportions from granite.

How these achievements were accomplished has not yet been solved. They can be explained to a certain extent by the tireless patience of the Egyptian people, who conquered the hardest materials with such unlikely methods as wearing them away. But many of their methods are undoubtedly destined to remain a mystery to us.

Ancient Egyptians don’t seem very advanced compared to civilization in the 21st century, but you have to realize we are in a much more advanced time than they were. We have had a lot more time to develop this far into computers, televisions, video games, and medical knowledge. They had a shorter amount of time to develop a water clock, sundial, pyramids and the tools to build them, and a time system.


A mummy is one of the most recognizable legacies of ancient Egypt. It has fascinated people throughout history because it reveals humanity — one can clearly see that this is a human being — and yet appears to conceal identity: its entire body, including its face, is hidden from view.

The mummy pictured above is on loan from the Carlos Museum in Atlanta, Georgia, and can currently be seen on site at the Museum of Science, Boston. The Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center made available to us some of the most
advanced CAT scan imaging technology available in the Northeast, allowing us to generate about 2500 images of the mummy to be used for the advanced 3D imaging.  Mummification was an important step to ensuring one's afterlife in Ancient Egypt — the body had to be preserved so that one's ba — or soul — could re-enter the body for eternity. Mummification was a very effective way of preserving a person after death and making sure that the ba would have a place to return to for a long time to come.
The Ancient Egyptians changed from copper tools to bronze tools because bronze tools were better to work with. By 200 BC they changed from bronze tools to iron tools. With these tools, the Ancient Egyptians built great monuments and palaces but it took them a lot longer than it would take a civilization today because we have better tools than they did. They may not have been very high tech, but they knew what they were doing. They’re the ones who built the Great Pyramids at Giza, and look at that, today they’re still standing.
Ancient Egyptian scientists used their knowledge to think of how to do something big and unique. Then they thought of how to build useful things inside monuments like levers, ramps, and rollers that moved heavy boxes.
Building a Monument  

Have you ever seen a very old building? It’s torn up, right? Ancient Egyptian pyramids are about 4,000 years old and only have a few chipped blocks. Well just compare our structures to those built in Ancient Egypt. Big difference, huh?

The Ancient Egyptians built their pyramid blocks so tight together that even today, over 4,000 years after they were built, you cannot stick a razor sharp knife in between any two blocks. The blocks of the pyramids are so heavy and big that tornadoes or even hurricanes cannot destroy them.





The Ancient Egyptian calendar is a little different from ours today. There were ten days in a week, three weeks in a month, four months in a season, three seasons in a year, and five holy days. That adds up to a 365-day year. The Egyptians were the first people to come up with the 365-day year.


Ancient Egypt

Modern Egypt

Days per week



Weeks per month


4 or 5

Months per season



Seasons per year





Egyptians clocks were much different from ours as well. There were two types of clocks in Ancient Egypt—a water clock and a sundial. A water clock sounds very complicated, but really it’s not. It is a little stand with a pot on the top of the stand and a pot at the bottom of the stand. The pot at the top of the stand had a hole drilled in the side. This pot was then filled with water and the water would flow out of the top pot down to the bottom pot. When the water was at a certain level, it was a certain time. The only disadvantage to the water clock was that you had to keep refilling it.

The sundial was basically a circle with numbers written around it with a little stick in the middle. When the stick’s shadow fell at a certain number, it was that time.

One big advantage the water clock had over the sundial was you couldn’t use the sundial at night and the water clock you could


Technology In Modern Egypt  
Technology Parks in Egypt
The information technology (IT) market has grown rapidly in the last few years. The formation of a dynamic and ambitious Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (MCIT) in 1999 gave this sector a visible and much-needed boost. The IT sector is growing at more than 10% annually. MCIT continues to implement its ambitious plans to increase software exports, which reached $150 million in 2003 compared to $50 million in 2000. Other national objectives: train more skilled engineers, support E-government and E-commerce, and increase IT awareness among the population. 

Egypt's Smart Village (ESV)

The construction of the Egypt's Smart Village is an initiative designed to provide a high tech environment necessary to attract IT companies to set up offices in Egypt. It is located on a 300-acre park just 20 minutes away from downtown Cairo, 10km from the pyramids and is also easily accessible from Cairo International Airport. The Smart Village provides a state-of-the-art infrastructure catering to every company's business needs.

Upon completion of all the phases there will be 58 office plots, accommodating approximately 30,000 employees within a total office area of 1,336,000 square meters. Any company in the IT and Telecommunications sector can rent office spare or buy land and build their own offices in the Smart Village.

Science and technology Academy:-

Founded in 1971, the Academy of Scientific Research and Technology in Cairo is the national body responsible for science and technology. Egypt also has 12 specialized learned societies in the fields of agriculture, medicine, science, and technology. The National Research Center, also in Cairo, carries out research in pure and applied sciences. The Ministry of Agriculture has 20 attached research institutes in Cairo and Giza. Twenty other institutes conduct research in medicine, science, and technology. In 1987–97, research and development expenditures totaled0.2% of GNP; 341 technicians and 459 scientists and engineers per million people engaged in research and development.
Located in Cairo are museums devoted to agriculture, geology, railways, and marine technology. In addition to polytechnic institutes in Cairo and Mansoura, Egypt in 1996 had 13 universities offering courses in basic and applied sciences. In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 12% of college and university enrollments.

Academy of Scientific Research and Technology Of Egypt ( ASRT )

Egyptian academy offering trainings, projects and seminars about scientific research and technology .

The main functions of ASRT, which was founded in 1948, are to support research directed towards solving critical national issues; encourage application of modern technology; formulate policies to strengthen linkages between science and technology organizations; foster basic research and support research institutions; and advance international relations in science and technology. Since 1986, the Academy has been with the Minister of State for Scientific Research, the official spokesman for ASRT activities before the political and legislative authorities.



Dr. Tarek Hussein

IAP Contact Person:
Professor Mohsen M.  Shoukry

Address:  101 Kaser Al-Aini St., Cairo, Egypt
Tel. : (+20 2) 7921286 / 7921287
Fax. :          (+20 2) 7921270
E.Mail :   Asrt@Asrt.Sci.Eg
Web. :

 Abu-Ghazaleh Intellectual Property (AGIP)

Egypt: Agreement Between Egyptian Academy Of Scientific Research & Technology And The GCC Patent Office  . 

20 April 2000

A memorandum of understanding has been electronically signed between the Egyptian Academy of Scientific Research & Technology, and the GCC Patent Office.

The memorandum was signed by Dr. Mohammed Yousry, Head of the Academy and by Mr. Mohammed Al-Ali Al-Rasheed, General Director of the Patents Office.

Dr. Fawzi El-Rafi, Deputy to the Head of the Academy for Technological Development and Scientific Services, announced that this memorandum provides that the Egyptian Center examines patents for the GCC whether they are Arab, Egyptian or Foreign

Egyptian Academy will also participate in training and the creation of technical cadres as well as exchange views on various issues relating to industrial property in the light of international changes and new supposed to provide general guide to this subject, with the availability of data Avenue, which have positive impacts on decision-making process for the countries in the world Granting a patent to prove the seriousness with which is one of the conditions for granting patents .

National Research Center  (NRC)

Prof. Dr. Hany El Nazer

      El Buhoth St.., Dokki, cairo, Egypt.
Tel. : (+202) 33371362 /433/615/933/449
fax:             (+202) 33370931
Postal Code : 12311
Web :
NRC was established as an independent public organization in 1956, with the aim ”to foster basic and applied scientific research, particularly in industry, agriculture, public health and other sectors of national economy”. It is the largest of all institutions affiliated to the ministry of Scientific Research and employs about 60% of all scientists working in these institutions.

Between the sixties and eighties of the last century six divisions of NRC developed into independent research institutes:

  • The national institute of standards.
  • Petroleum research institute.
  • Central metallurgical research institute.
  • Theodore Bilharz institute.
  • Ophthalmology research institute.
  • Electronic research institute.

Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications  (MUCSAT)

Mubarak City for Scientific Research & Technology Applications (MuCSAT) is the newest addition of research institutes in Egypt that was directed to the development and renovation of industry. The City was established in 1993 by Presidential decree and is managed by a board of trustee headed by the Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research. The MuCSAT occupies 250 acres in the industrial area located at New Borg El Arab City, west of Alexandria.

This region also inhabits about 40% of the Egyptian industry. The science park will comprises 12 research centers to be developed at different intervals. The first stage of MuCSAT was inaugurated on the 13th of August, 2000. Focus sectors: Biotechnology (genetic engineering, biotechnology research), Information Technology (informatics research), Advanced Engineering (new materials), Nanotechnology (solar cells)

 Established institutions and/or companies :

  • Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBRI)
  • Informatics Research Institute (IRI)
  • Advanced Technologies and New Materials Research Institute (IATNM)
  • Technology Capabilities Development Centre (TCDC)

Scheduled to be established:

  • Arid Lands Cultivation Research Institute (ALCRI)
  • Laser Research Institute (LRI)
  • Environmental and Natural Resources Research Institute (ENRRI)
  • New and Renewable Energy Research Institute (NRERI)
  • Fine Chemical Research Institute (FCRI)
  • Pharmaceutical and Fermentation Industries Development Centre (PFIDV)
  • Small Scale Industries Development Centre (SSIDC)
  • Engineering Industries Development Centre (EIDC)


 Sinai Technology Valley (STV)

The Sinai Technology Valley is one of the major projects for socioeconomic development in Egypt. It is a technopole and is located at the northwestern access to Sinai Peninsula, on the east bank of the Suez Canal within the territorial jurisdiction of Ismailia governorate, covering an area of 72 square kilometers. The "technology valley" project will be implemented in five stages, in which the investments in the first stage amounted to nearly 500 million Egyptian pounds. 

 Northern Coast Technology Valley (NCTV)  (under development)

This proposed technopole is still at the study stage. The project is being considered by Alexandria Governorate, the Ministry of Higher Education, the Ministry of State for Scientific Research and the Social Fund for Development. 

Technology for Agriculture (TECA) FAO

TECA is an FAO initiative that aims at improving access to information and knowledge about available proven technologies in order to enhance their adoption in agriculture, livestock, fisheries and forestry thus contributing to food security, poverty alleviation and sustainable development.


Fishing Technologies from FIGIS

Fish capture technology encompasses the process of catching any aquatic animal, using any kind of fishing methods including artisanal fisheries, normally operated from a vessel.

Biotechnologies in Use in Developing Countries (FAO-BioDeC)

Meant to gather, store, organize and disseminate, updated baseline information on the state-of-the-art of crop biotechnology products and techniques, which are in use, or in the pipeline in developing countries.

Suzann Mubark Science Exploration Center (SMEC)

Egyptian Physicists Association EPA

Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute CMRDI - EGYPT

Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology Research Institute GEBRI

EGE Egyptian researchers of genetic engineering

Space technology centre

The Centre develops systems for autonomous spacecraft piloting and the management of spacecraft data both onboard and on the ground.

Research Centers Agency & Nuclear Research Centre


Telephone: +20 2 698-414
Telefax:   +20 2 698-899
Hot Laboratory and Waste Management Center (HLWMC)

The Nuclear Research Center (NRC), one of four research centers under the Atomic Energy Authority (AEA), is the oldest and the biggest research institute in the AEA. Its activities are directed towards the basic nuclear sciences, the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle, the reactors and the applications of radioisotopes in medicine, industry, and agriculture. The center houses research and service facilities, including:

National Center for Radiation Research& Technology


This centre was established in 1972 aiming at promoting research and development using ionizing radiation in medical, industrial, agricultural, environmental, and other applications.

Major research and service facilities in the centre include the Mega Gamma Irradiation Unit and the Electron Beam Accelerator.


National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics


Helwan observatory Egypt

The National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG) is one of the oldest scientific institutions.

Helwan, Cairo, Egypt
Phone : 002 - 02 - ( 5541100 - 5543111 - 5560046 - 5560645 )
Fax : +202 554 8020

Centre for Remote Sensing

Prof. Dr. Farouk El-Baz

The Center was established in 1986 as a facility for scientific research in the fields of archaeology, geography and geology.

We use satellite images and other data from airborne and ground sensors to study the Earth and its resources, particularly groundwater.

This includes the monitoring of environmental changes due to both natural processes and human activities.

In 1997, the Center was selected by NASA as a "Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing."

Nobel Prize
Ahmed Zewail. Science and Technology in the Twenty-First Century,A. Zuwail- Noble Winner in Chemistry prize in 1999 from His Majesty the King of Sweden at the Stockholm Concert Hall on December 10, 1999.

Dr. Zewail is the Linus Pauling Chair Professor of Chemistry and Professor of Physics & he was awarded the 1999 Nobel Prize for his development of the field of femtochemistry, making possible discoveries of phenomena on the femtosecond timescale. At present, the focus of his research group is mainly on the development of four-dimensional microscopy for visualization in the four dimensions of space and time, and the understanding of complexity of chemical and biological transformations.


Egypt and Italy to Build DesertSat
Egypt is signing an agreement with Italy to build and launch an environmental satellite. The Italian Space Agency and Egypt's National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences will jointly develop and launch DesertSat. The spacecraft will be used to monitor coastal erosion, desertification, and agricultural and water resources. No timeline was provided.

The satellite will use the Microsatellite Italiano di Technologia Avanzata (MITA) platform, which weighs about 50 kg and can accommodate payloads of 100 to 300 kg. The platform is reported to cost about 5 million euros.

The project will be conducted in four stages: training of Egyptian engineers and technicians, design, satellite production, and launch. The program may include the construction of a land station for receiving and processing satellite images.

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